Various Approaches to Reduce Consequences of Pedestrian−Tram Front End Collision


  • Roman Ježdík VÚKV a. s., Research, development and testing of railway rolling stock; Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University
  • Vladislav Kemka Regional Technology Institute, University of West Bohemia
  • Jan Kovanda Regional Technology Institute, University of West Bohemia
  • František Lopot Advanced Engineering, s.r.o.; Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University
  • Hynek Purš Advanced Engineering, s.r.o.; Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University
  • Barbora Hájková ŠKODA TRANSPORTATION a.s.; Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University



passive safety, trams, head injury, pedestrian collision, tram safety, evaluation


Safety of rail vehicles is an important feature of sustainable public transport. Proofs of an effort in that area are new recommendations and regulations from the expert commission (WG2 of the Technical Committee CEN / TC 256) regarding trams and light rail vehicles aimed at vulnerable road users. Additional requirements on tram safety can be requested by the vehicle operator and/or city. Pedestrian safety measures can be adopted from the automotive sector utilising the protection principles from Regulation EC No. 78/2009, ECE/UN regulations, and EuroNCAP tests. The purpose of this publication is to introduce a simplified testing method for the tram front end with respect to pedestrian head-on collisions. Testing methods based on segment impactors were generally accepted. The wrap-around distance defines the assessment of vehicle impact areas. A mathematical model was created to compare the results of the full-scale tests and the segment tests done by the standard and simplified aluminium head impactors. The tram front-end design can be tested using this alternate method, based on a simple impactor and easy methodology, providing an efficient tool to inspire both the tram manufacturers and vehicle operators to improve the vulnerable road users’ safety in city traffic.


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How to Cite

Ježdík, R., Kemka, V., Kovanda, J., Lopot, F., Purš, H., & Hájková, B. (2023). Various Approaches to Reduce Consequences of Pedestrian−Tram Front End Collision. Promet - Traffic&Transportation, 35(2), 133–147.